Ontology used on

1.  http://corpus.quran.com/

Ontology of  Quranic concepts

The Quranic Ontology uses knowledge representation to define the key concepts in the Quran. and shows the relationships those between these concepts using predicate logic. the fundamental concepts in the ontology are based on the knowledge contained in traditional sources of quranic analysis, including the hadith of the prophet Muhammmad and the tafsir of ibn kathir.



the diagram above showing the semantic relations between concepts.

2.  http://bioportal.bioontology.org/

The National center for biomedical Ontology is one of the National center Biomedical computing.

term “Ontology”

The term “Ontology” originally borrowed from philosophy, has gained substantial popularity in Computer Science and Information system.

Different notions of the term “Ontology”

Already in the early years of ontology research, Guarino and Giaretta (1995) raised concerns that the term “Ontology” was used inconsistently.
They found at least seven different notions assigned to the term: “…
1. Ontology as a philosophical discipline
2. Ontology as a an informal conceptual system
3. Ontology as a formal semantic account
4. Ontology as a specification of a conceptualization
5. Ontology as a representation of a conceptual system via a logical
5.1 characterized by specific formal properties
5.2 characterized only by its specific purposes
6. Ontology as the vocabulary used by a logical theory
7. Ontology as a (meta-level) specification of a logical theory” (from
Guarino & Giaretta, 1995).

In its original meaning in philosophy, ontology is a branch of metaphysics and denotes the philosophical investigation of existance. it is concerned with  the fundamental question of “what kind of things are there?” and lead to studying general categories for all things that axist dating back to the times of Aristotle.

Definition Ontology in Computer Science and Information Science, an formally represents knowledge as a set concept within domain, and the relationships between those concepts.

In theory, an Ontology is a formal, explicit spesification of a shared conceptualisation. an Ontology renders shared vocabulary and taxonomy which model a domain with the definition of objects or concepts and their properties and relations.

Ontologies are used in Artificial intelligence, Semantic Web, system engineering, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science and information architecture.