JSON-LD on google.com

JSON-LD is designed around the concept of a “context” to provide additional mappings from JSON to an  RDF model. The context links object properties in a JSON document to concepts in an Ontology. In order to map the JSON-LD syntax to RDF, JSON-LD allows values to be coerced to a specified type or to be tagged with a language. A context can be embedded directly in a JSON-LD document or put into a separate file and referenced from different documents (from traditional JSON documents via an HTTP Link header.





JSON-LD has been designed to be a modular set of specifications. It consists of two base specifications: The JSON-LD Syntax and the JSON-LD API. All other JSON-LD specifications are layered upon the previous two specifications, allowing the community to build experimental extensions on top of the base specifications.

The JSON-LD Syntax

Defines JSON-LD, a JSON-based format to serialize Linked Data. The syntax is designed to easily integrate into deployed systems that already use JSON, and provides a smooth upgrade path from JSON to JSON-LD. It is primarily intended to be a way to use Linked Data in Web-based programming environments, to build interoperable Web services, and to store Linked Data in JSON-based storage engines.

Links to JSON-LD specifications: Latest, 20140116, 20131105, 20130910, 20130630, 20130411, 20130328, 20130222, 20130202, 20121225, 20120930, 20120830, 20120712,20120626, 20120522, 20120426, 20120318, 20120122, 20120112, 20111023, 20111016, 20110911, 20110817, 20110808, 20110803, 20110615, 20110507, 20110201, 20101128,20101024, 20101014, 20100823, 20100529


An Application Programming Interface (API) and a set of algorithms for programmatic transformations of JSON-LD documents. This API defines algorithms for applying and removing JSON-LD contexts.

Links to JSON-LD API specifications: Latest, 20140116, 20131105, 20130910, 20130516, 20130514, 20130411, 20130328, 20121225, 20120930, 20120830, 20120712, 20120626,20120524, 20120426, 20120112, 20111023, 20111016

JSON-LD Framing

JSON-LD Framing allows developers to perform query by example and force a specific tree layout to a JSON-LD document. It allows developers to restructure data retrieved from the Web according to the specific needs of their application. Restructuring JSON-LD data before your application processes it leads to simpler code when processing data from external sources.

Links to JSON-LD Framing specifications: Latest, 20120830

RDF Graph Normalization

RDF describes a graph-based data model for making claims about the world and provides the foundation for reasoning upon that graph of information. At times, it becomes necessary to compare the differences between graphs, digitally sign graphs, or generate short identifiers for graphs via hashing algorithms. This document outlines an algorithm for normalizing RDF graphs such that these operations can be performed on the normalized graphs.

Links to RDF Graph Normalization specifications: Latest, 20111016


JSON-LD RDF API describes access methods for transforming and abstract RDF represention into JSON-LD and back.

Links to JSON-LD RDF API specifications: Latest

Semantic web support Business

How Semantic Web technologies support Business Activities

Defining ‘‘Context’’: Within an organization, a ‘‘context’’ has its own knowledge
resources, business processes, and definitions for terms. A small accounting company may have some small functions for marketing and HR, but its primary context will be ‘‘accounting.’’ For a large multinational on the other hand, there are independent knowledge bases and processes for different departments.

Defining ‘‘Concept’’:Within an organization, certain activities may be conceptual, and others are not. Simple calculations are not conceptual, but developing a corporate strategy.

  1.  Activities where concepts and conceptual understanding are important: For    example, reviewing legal documentation or contracts, or searching information for concepts. and data related to the topic of focus. Generically speaking, activities where the actor is trying to interpret, infer, augment, and aggregate information
  2. Activities that span a diverse range of business contexts: For example, working across R&D, marketing, and operations departments to develop a new product line. Generically speaking, activities that help discover, harvest, create, present, transmit, or act across diverse knowledge resources and business processes

(Source : Handbook of Semantic Web Technologies, 2011)

Current Semantic research activities towards a Large Enterprise…..

for instance, The Semantic Technology and Business Conference. also known as (SemTechBiz) divided  into several parts topic include

Big data, Business Intelligence and Analytics, Case studies/use case. Cloud Computing, Content Management, context, Developing Semantic Software, Enterprise data management, Industry and business trend, Knowledge engineering and data management, linked data, reasoning, rule, web service and  so on


term “Ontology”

The term “Ontology” originally borrowed from philosophy, has gained substantial popularity in Computer Science and Information system.

Different notions of the term “Ontology”

Already in the early years of ontology research, Guarino and Giaretta (1995) raised concerns that the term “Ontology” was used inconsistently.
They found at least seven different notions assigned to the term: “…
1. Ontology as a philosophical discipline
2. Ontology as a an informal conceptual system
3. Ontology as a formal semantic account
4. Ontology as a specification of a conceptualization
5. Ontology as a representation of a conceptual system via a logical
5.1 characterized by specific formal properties
5.2 characterized only by its specific purposes
6. Ontology as the vocabulary used by a logical theory
7. Ontology as a (meta-level) specification of a logical theory” (from
Guarino & Giaretta, 1995).

In its original meaning in philosophy, ontology is a branch of metaphysics and denotes the philosophical investigation of existance. it is concerned with  the fundamental question of “what kind of things are there?” and lead to studying general categories for all things that axist dating back to the times of Aristotle.

Definition Ontology in Computer Science and Information Science, an formally represents knowledge as a set concept within domain, and the relationships between those concepts.

In theory, an Ontology is a formal, explicit spesification of a shared conceptualisation. an Ontology renders shared vocabulary and taxonomy which model a domain with the definition of objects or concepts and their properties and relations.

Ontologies are used in Artificial intelligence, Semantic Web, system engineering, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science and information architecture.